Die Steinbrüche von Teos und «Marmor Luculleum»

Mustafa ADAK – Musa KADIOĞLU   1–43


Abstract: Apart from grey-bluish marble (bigio), coloured marble (africano), which was highly valued as building and decoration material by the Romans, was obtained from the quarries of Teos. Owing to the great demand for Teian coloured marble in Rome, the quarries are likely to have come under imperial control as early as under Augustus. Since the pertinent passage by Pliny (nat. hist. 36, 49–50) is corrupted, the question as to whether the «marmor Luculleum», introduced into Rome by and named after the general Lucius Licinius Lucullus, actually stemmed from the quarries at Teos and can be identified with the so-called Africano marble has hitherto remained moot. A newly found inscription from Teos finally answers it in favour of this Ionian city. Said inscription is a dedication to Venus Pontia by the imperial freedman Communis, who mentions «a lapicidinis Luculleis» as his official title. In this capacity he probably supervised work in the quarries of Teos. The extraction of coloured marble was apparently limited to five archaeologically verified quarries in the hinterland of Teos. Compared with other imperial quarries, those at Teos were rather small-scale sites. In addition, the quantity of this sought-after coloured marble extracted from these quarries was not very high, as this marble was found in close association with grey marble. The quantity of grey marble extracted there appears to have been several times higher. In the 2nd century AD the quantity of coloured marble being extracted was in rapid decline, and by 166 AD this type of marble seems to have been used up completely. Consequently, the quarries were closed, which is confirmed by the archaeological evidence as well as by dated inscriptions found on marble blocks left behind in the quarries of Karagöl and Kesikkaya. Today, traces of coloured marble can be found only in the rubble from extraction at said quarries, whereas the extraction walls themselves consist of grey marble. The great demand in the capital for coloured marble from Teos resulted in most of the quarried material being to be shipped to Rome and Italy. However, cities in Asia Minor do not appear to have been entirely excluded from access to the Africano. In Teos itself small vestiges of the Africano from the bouleuterion prove that this marble was used as cladding material. The revision of a hitherto unsatisfactorily edited dedicatory inscription (PHI Teos 100) also shows that the strategos Kleonaios had the floor of a public building laid out with coloured marble. Said floor was dedicated to an emperor whose name is erased (perhaps Domitian), to the city god Dionysus and to the demos of Teos.

Keywords: Teos; Africano; marmor Luculleum; a lapicidinis Luculleis; Venus Pontia; Taşdibi; Karagöl; Kesikkaya; Beyler; Küçükkaya.



Adak – Öztürk 2016

M. Adak – H. S. Öztürk, Ein neuer Meilenstein aus der Nähe von Dableis (Nikaia) und das flavische Straßenbauprogramm in der Provinz Bithynia et Pontus, Philia 2, 2016, 72–82.

Albustanlıoğlu 2006

T. Albustanlıoğlu, Roma İmparatorluk Döneminde Mermer Ocakları Organizasyonu, Diss. Ankara 2006.

Ameling 1989

W. Ameling, Lucius Licinius in Chios, ZPE 77, 1989, 98–100.

Attanasio et al. 2009

D. Attanasio – M. Bruno – A. B. Yavuz – H. Elci, Aphrodisias and the Newly Discovered Quarries at Göktepe, in: R. R. R. Smith – J. Lenaghan (Hgg.), Roman Portraits from Aphrodisias, Istanbul 2009, 216–227.

Attanasio et al. 2012

D. Attanasio – M. Brilli – M. Bruno – L. Ungaro – M. Vitti, Rome: white marbles in the fora of Caesar, Augustus and Trajan, in: A. G. Garcia – M. P. Lapuente Mercadel – I. Rodà de Llanza (Hgg.), Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone, Proceedings of the IX Association for the Study of Marbles and Other Stones in Antiquity (ASMOSIA) conference (Tarragona 2009), Tarragona 2012, 331–343.

Attanasio et al. 2013

D. Attanasio – M. Bruno – W. Prochaska – A. B. Yavuz, The Asiatic marbles of the Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli, Journal of Archaeological Science 40/12, 2013, 4358–4368.

Attanasio et al. 2015

D. Attanasio – M. Bruno – W. Prochaska – A. B. Yavuz, Analysis and discrimination of Phrygian and other Pavonazzetto-Like Marbles, in P. Pensabene – E. Gasparini (Hgg.), Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference of ASMOSIA. Association for the Study of Marble & Other Stones in Antiquity Rome (21–26 May 2012), Rom 2015, 753–764.

Baccini Leotardi 1989

L. P. Baccini Leotardi, Nuove testimonianze sul commercio dei marmi in età imperiale, Rom 1989.

Ballance 1966

M. H. Ballance, The origin of Africano, PBSR 34, 1966, 79–81.

Baran – Petzl 1977/78

M. Baran – G. Petzl, Beobachtungen aus dem nordöstlichen Hinterland von Teos, IstMitt 27, 1977/78, 301–308.

Basile 1987

B. Basile, Recenti Prospezioni Subacquee nell’Arco Costiero fra Messina e Giardini Naxos, in: Lo Stretto Crocevia di Culture. Atti del Ventiseiesimo Convegno di Studi sulla Magna Grecia (Taranto-Reggio Calabria, 9–14 Ottobre 1986), Taranto 1987, 361–395.

Bean 1979

G. E. Bean, Aegean Turkey, London 21979.

Becatti 1953

G. Becatti, Scavi di Ostia IV: Mosaici e Pavimenti Marmorei, Rom 1953.

Béquignon 1928

Y. Béquignon, Les pyrgoi de Téos, RA 28, 1928, 185–208.

Beloch 1879

J. Beloch, Campanien. Topographie, Geschichte und Leben der Umgebung Neapels im Alterthum, Berlin 1879.

Bitterer 2013

T. Bitterer, Marmorverkleidung stadtrömischer Architektur. Öffentliche Bauten aus dem 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr. bis 7. Jahrhundert n. Chr., Diss. München 2013.

Blake 1947

M. E. Blake, Ancient Roman Construction in Italy from the Prehistoric Period to Augustus, Washington 1947.

Blake 1959

M. E. Blake, Roman Construction in Italy from Tiberius through the Flavians, Washington 1959.

Blake – Taylor-Bishop 1973

M. E. Blake – D. Taylor-Bishop, Roman Construction in Italy from Nerva through the Antonines, Philadelphia 1973.

Blümner 1884

H. Blümner, Technologie und Terminologie der Gewerbe und Künste bei Griechen und Römern, Bd. III, Leipzig 1884.

Boßmann 2008

A. Boßmann, „Es wetteifern in bunter Pracht die Steine ...“. Zu den Dekorgesteinen einer Säulenhalle von Alexandria Troas, in: E. Winter (Hg.), Vom Euphrat an den Bosporus. Kleinasien in der Antike. Festschrift für Elmar Schwertheim zum 65. Geburtstag, Bonn 2008, 133-144 (Asia Minor Studien 65,2).

Bruhl 1953

A. Bruhl, Liber Pater. Origine et expansion du culte dionysiaque à Rome et dans le monde romain, Paris 1953.

Bruno et al. 2012

M. Bruno – H. Elçi – A. B. Yavuz – D. Attanasio, Unknown ancient marble quarries of Western Asia Minor, in: A. Gutiérrez Garcia-Moreno – P. Lapuente Mercadal – I. Rodà de Llanza (Hgg.), Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone. Proceedings of the IX ASMOSIA Conference (Tarragona 2009), Tarragona 2012, 562–572.

Bruzza 1870

L. Bruzza, Iscrizioni dei marmi grezzi, Annali dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archaeologica 42, 1870, 106–204.

Carey 2003

S. Carey, Pliny’s Catalogue of Culture: Art and Empire in the Natural History, Oxford 2003.

Carrol et al. 2008

M. Carrol – G. Montana – L. Randazzo – R. Giarrusso, Recovering evidence for the use of marble and coloured limestone in the First Century AD in excavations at the Sanctuary of Venus at Pompeii, The Journal of Fasti Online 2008, 1–13.

Chandler 1775

R. Chandler, Travels in Asia Minor, Oxford 1775.

Chidiroglou 2009

M. Chidiroglou, New data on the ancient marble quarries in Southern Euboea, Greece, in: Ph. Jockey (Hg.), Λευκὸς λίθος. Marbres et autres roches de la Méditerranée antique: études interdisciplinaires. Actes du VIIIe Colloque International de l’Association for the Study of Marbles and Other Stones used in Antiquity (ASMOSIA) (Aix-en-Provence, 12–18 June 2006), Paris 2009, 73–91.

Cramer 2004

Th. Cramer, Multivariate Herkunftsanalyse von Marmor auf petrographischer und geochemischer Basis. Das Beispiel kleinasiatischer archaischer, hellenistischer und römischer Marmorobjekte der Berliner Antikensammlung und ihre Zuordnung zu mediterranen und anatolischen Marmorlagerstätten, Diss. TU Berlin 2004.

Crummy 1984

P. Crummy, Colchester Archaeological Report 3: Excavations at Lion Walk, Balkerne Lane, and Middlesborough, Colchester (1984).

Davison 2000

J. M. Davison, Vitruvius on the Theater in Republican Rome, in: S. K. Dickison – J. P. Hallet (Hgg.), Rome and Her Monuments: Essays on the City and Literature of Rome in Honor of Katherine A. Geffcken, Wauconda 2000, 125–172.

De Nuccio – Pensabene 2014

M. de Nuccio – P. Pensabene, Il Teatro di Marcello e la divulgazione dei marmi colorati nell’architettura teatrale romana, in: V. García-Entero (Hg.) El marmor en Hispania: explotación, uso y difusión en época romana, Ma-drid 2014, 49–72.

Di Leo 1989

B. Di Leo, Africano, in: M. L. Anderson – L. Nista (Hgg.), Radiance in Stone. Sculptures in Colored Marble from the Museo Nazionale Romano (Ausstellungskatalog), Rom 1989, 49–50.

Dodge 1988

H. Dodge, Palmyra and the Roman marble trade: Evidence from the baths of Diocletian, Levant 20, 1988, 215–230.

Drew-Bear – Eck 1976

T. Drew-Bear – W. Eck, Kaiser-, Militär- und Steinbruchinschriften aus Phrygien, Chiron 6, 1976, 289–316.

Dubois 1908

C. Dubois, Étude sur l’administration et l’exploitation des carrières marbres, porphyre, granit, etc. dans le monde romain, Paris 1908.

Dunbabin 1999

K. M. D. Dunbabin, Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World, Cambridge 1999.

Dworakowska 1990

A. Dworakowska, Once again on Marmor Luculleum, in: M. True – J. Podany (Hgg.), Marble: art historical and scientific perspectives on ancient sculpture. Papers delivered at a symposium organized by the Departments of Antiquities and Antiquities Conservation and held at the J. Paul Getty Museum, April 28–30, 1988, Malibu 1990, 253–262.

Dworakowska 1993

A. Dworakowska, Quarries in Roman Provinces, Warschau 1993.

Er 2011

Ö. Er, İzmir Seferihisar (Batı Türkiye) Africano Mermerinin Jeolojisi. Malzeme Özellikleri ve Durabilitesinin İncelenmesi, Unveröffentlichte Ma-gisterarbeit (Dokuz Eylül Universitesi, İzmir).

Evans 2007

R. Evans, Utopia Antiqua: Readings of the Golden Age and Decline at Rome, London – New York 2007.

Fant 1984

J. C. Fant, The Production of Marmor Luculleum (africano) in the Roman Empire, AJA 88, 1984, 243.

Fant 1987

J. C. Fant, Preliminary report of the Teos/Karagöl survey, AST 5/1, 1987, 389–401.

Fant 1989

J. C. Fant, Poikiloi lithoi. The anomalous economics of the Roman imperial marble quarry at Teos, in: S. Walker – A. Cameron (Hgg.), The Greek renaissance in the Roman empire. Papers from the tenth  British Museum Classical Colloquium (Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Suppl. 55), London 1989, 206–218.

Fant 1999

J. C. Fant, Augustus and the city of marble, in: M. Schvoerer (Hg.), Archéomatériaux: marbres et autres roches. ASMOSIA IV, Bordeaux 1999, 277–280.

Fant 1992

J. C. Fant, The Imperial Marble Yard at Portus, in: M. Waelkens – N. Herz – L. Moens, Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, Leuven 1992, 115–120.

Fant 2001

J. C. Fant, Rome’s marble yards, JRA 14, 2001, 167–198.

Giavarini 2005

C. Giavarini, The Basilica of Maxentius: The Monument, its Materials, Construction and Stability, Rom 2005.

Gnoli 1971

R. Gnoli, Marmora Romana, Rom 1971 (21988).

Gnoli – Marchei – Sironi 2004

R. Gnoli – M. C. Marchei – A. Sironi, Repertorio, in: G. Borghini (Hg.), Marmi Antichi Rom 52004, 131–295.

Gorski – Packer 2015

G. J. Gorski – J. E. Packer, The Roman Forum: A Reconstruction and Architectural Guide, Cambridge 2015.

Graf 1985

F. Graf, Nordionische Kulte. Religionsgeschichtliche und epigraphische Untersuchungen zu den Kulten von Chios, Erythrai, Klazomenai und Phokaia, Rom 1985.

Gregarek 1999

H. Gregarek, Untersuchungen zur kaiserzeitlichen Idealplastik aus Buntmarmor, KölnJb 32, 1999, 33–284.

Guérout 2002

M. Guérout, France, in: C. V. Ruppé – J. F. Barstad (Hgg.), International Handbook of Underwater Archaeology, New York 2002, 433–448.

Hamilton 1842

W. J. Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus and Armenia I –II, London 1842.

Herrmann 1988

P. Herrmann, Chresimos, procurator lapidicinarum. Zur Verwaltung der kaiserlichen Steinbrüche in der Provinz Asia, Tyche 3, 1988, 119–128 (wiederabgedruckt in: P. Herrmann, Kleinasien im Spiegel epigraphischer Zeugnisse. Ausgewählte kleine Schriften, Berlin 2016, 581–592).

Hanson 1959

J. Hanson, Roman Theatre-Temples, Princeton 1959.

Hauvette-Besnault – Pottier 1880

A. Hauvette-Besnault – E. Pottier, Inscriptions d’Érythrées et de Téos, BCH 4, 1880, 153–182.

Hirschfeld 1905

O. Hirschfeld, Die kaiserlichen Verwaltungsbeamten bis auf Diocletian, Berlin 1905.

Hirt 2004

A. M. Hirt, Chresimus, procurator a marmoribus und der Strassenbau. Überlegungen zu Logistik und Transportwesen kaiserlicher Steinbrüche, in: R. Frei-Stolba (Hg.), Siedlung und Verkehr im römischen Reich. Römerstraßen zwischen Herrschaftssicherung und Landschaftsprägung. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums zu Ehren von H. E. Herzig, Bern 2004, 115–134.

Hirt 2010

A. M. Hirt, Imperial Mines and Quarries in the Roman World: Organizational Aspects 27 BC - AD 235, Oxford 2010.

Hirt 2014

A. M. Hirt, Centurions, Quarries, and Emperors. Polychrome ‘Marble’ and Imperial Intervention under Hadrian, in: P. Erdkamp – K. Verboeven – A. Zujderhoek (Hgg.), Ownership and Exploitation of Land and Natural Resources in the Roman World, Oxford 2014, 289–314.

Hofter 1988

M. Hofter, Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, Berlin 1988.

Joncheray 1998

A. Joncheray, Dramont I: une épave de marbres d’Asie Mineure, in: É. Rieth (Hg.), Méditerranée antique: pêche, navigation, commerce, Paris 1998, 139–158.

Joncheray –Joncheray 1997

A. Joncheray – J.-P. Joncheray, Dramont I, description et étude de la coque d’une épave de marbres d’Asie Mineure du premier siècle après J.-C., Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 13, 1997, 165–195.

Kadıoğlu 2012a

M. Kadıoğlu, Teos Rehber Kitap/Guide Book, Izmir 2012.

Kadıoğlu 2012b

M. Kadıoğlu, Teos (1962–1966, 2010–), in: O. Bingöl – A. Öztaner – H. Taşkıran (Hgg.), DTCF Arkeoloji Bölümü Tarihçesi ve Kazıları (1936–2011), Ankara 2012, 505–522 (Anadolu/Anatolia Ek Dizi III,2).

Kadıoğlu 2017

M. Kadıoğlu, Der Gebrauch von Marmorsorten in der Architektur von Nysa und Teos, in: T. Ismaelli – G. Scardozzi (Hgg.), Ancient Quarries and Building Sites in Asia Minor. Research on Hierapolis in Phrygia and other cities in south-western Anatolia: archaeology, archaeometry, conservation, Bari 2017 (Bibliotheca Archaeologica 45).

Kadıoğlu – Özbil 2015

M. Kadıoğlu – C. Özbil, Yeni Araştırmalar Işığında Teos, Türk Eskiçağ Bilimleri Enstitüsü Haberler 40, 2015, 4–16.

Kadıoğlu et al. 2013

M. Kadıoğlu – M. Adak – C. Özbil – S. H. Öztaner – R. Tamsü Polat – Y. Polat, 2011 Yılı Teos Kazı Çalışmaları (2. Sezon), KST 34/2, 2012, Çorum 2014, 211–232.

Kadıoğlu et al. 2015a

M. Kadıoğlu – C. Özbil – M. Kerschner – H. Mommsen, Teos im Licht der neuen Forschungen, in: Ü. Yalçın – H.-D. Bienert (Hgg.), Anatolien – Brücke der Kulturen. Aktuelle Forschungen und Perspektiven in den deutsch-türkischen Altertumswissenschaften. Tagungsband des internationalen Symposiums “Anatolien – Brücke der Kulturen” in Bonn vom 7. bis 9. Juli 2014, Bonn 2015, 345–366 (Der Anschnitt. Zeitschrift für Kunst und Kultur im Bergbau Beiheft 27).

Kadıoğlu et al. 2015b

M. Kadıoğlu – M. Adak – C. Özbil – D. Ö. Yalçın, R. Tamsü Polat – Y. Polat – İ. Tuğcu, 2012–2013 Teos Kazı Çalışmaları (3.–4. Sezon)”, KST 36/3, Ankara 2015, 437–471.

Kapitän 1971

G. Kapitän, Esplorazioni su alcuni Carichi di Marmo e Pezzi Architettonici davanti alle Coste della Sicilia Orientale, in: Atti del III Congresso Internazionale di Archeologia Sottomarina (Barcellona 1961), Bordighera 1971, 296–309.

Kearsley 2001

R. A. Kearsley, Greeks and Romans in Imperial Asia. Mixed language inscriptions and linguistic evidence for cultural interaction until the end of AD III, Bonn 2001 (IK 59).

Keaveney 2009

A. Keaveney, Lucullus. A Life, London 2009.

Kerschner – Prochaska 2011

M. Kerschner – W. Prochaska, Die Tempel und Altäre der Artemis in Ephesos und ihre Baumaterialien. Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zur Herkunft der Marmore und ihr archäologischer Kontext, ÖJh 80, 2011, 73–153.

Koller 2014

K. Koller, Marmor, in: H. Thür – E. Rathmayr (Hgg.), Hanghaus 2 in Ephesos. Die Wohneinheit 6, Wien 2014, 227–253 (Forschungen in Ephesos VIII 9).

Kramer 2012

N. Kramer, Keramik und Kleinfunde aus Diokaisareia, Berlin 2012.

Kun – Türkmen 2001

N. Kun – F. Türkmen, Teos yeşil mermerinin jeolojik konumu ve özellikleri, in: Türkiye III. Mermer Sempozyumu (3–5 Mayıs 2001), Afyon 2001, 1–7.

Lambraki 1980

A. Lambraki, Le cipolin de la Karystie. Contribution à l’étude des marbres de la Grèce exploités aux époques romaine et paléochrétienne, RA1, 1980, 31–62.

Lapuente et al. 2012

P. Lapuente – T. Nogales – H. León – H. Royo – M. Preite-Martinez, Black sculptural materials from Villa Adriana: study of provenance, in: A. G. Garcia – M. P. Lapuente Mercadel – I. Rodà de Llanza (Hgg.), Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone, Proceedings of the IX Association for the Study of Marbles and Other Stones in Antiquity (ASMOSIA) conference (Tarragona 2009), Tarragona 2012, 376–383.

Lauffer 1971

S. Lauffer, Diokletians Preisedikt, Berlin 1971.

Lazzarini 2002

L. Lazzarini, La determinazione della provenienza delle pietre decorative usate dai Romani, in: M. De Nuccio – L. Ungaro (Hgg.), I marmi colorati della Roma Imperiale. Catalogo della mostra (Roma 28 settembre 2002–19 gennaio 2003), Venedig 2002, 223–265.

Lazzarini 2004

L. Lazzarini, La diffusione e il riuso dei piú importanti marmi romani nelle province imperiali, in: L. Lazzarini (Hg.), Pietre e marmi antichi. Natura, caratterizzazione, origine, storia d’uso, diffusione, collezionismo, Padua 2004, 101–122.

Lazzarini 2007

L. Lazzarini, Poikiloi lithoi, versiculores maculae: i marmi colorati della Grecia antica. Storia, uso, diffusione, cave, geologia, caratterizzazione scientifica, archeometria, deterioramento, Pisa 2007.

Lazzarini 2009

L. Lazzarini, The distribution and re-use of the most important coloured marbles in the provinces of the Roman Empire, in: Y. Maniatis (Hg.), ASMOSIA VII. Actes du VIIe colloque international de l’ASMOSIA. Thasos 15–20 septembre 2003, Paris 2009 (BCH Suppl. 51), 459–484.

Le Bas – Waddington 1870

Ph. Le Bas – W.H. Waddington, Inscriptions grecques et latines recueillies en Asie Mineure, I–II, Paris 1870 (ND Hildesheim – New York 1972)


E. M. Steinby (Hg.), Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae, Bd. 4, Rom 1999.

McCabe, Teos

D. F. McCabe – M. A. Plunkett, Teos Inscriptions. Texts and List, Princeton 1985.

Meiggs 1973

R. Meiggs, Roman Ostia, Oxford 1973.

Meneghini et al. 2009

R. Meneghini – A. Corsaro – B. P. Caboni, Il Templum Pacis alla luce dei recenti scavi, in: F. Coarelli (Hg.), Divus Vespasianus. Il Bimillenario dei Flavi (catalogo della mostra, Roma, marzo 2009 - gennaio 2010), Mailand 2009, 190–199.

Mielsch 1985

H. Mielsch, Buntmarmore aus Rom im Antikenmuseum Berlin, Berlin 1985.

Miles 2008

M. M. Miles, Art as Plunder: The Ancient Origins of Debate about Cultural Property, Cambridge 2008.

Monthel – Lambert 2002

G. Monthel – P.-Y. Lambert, La carrière gallo-romaine de Saint-Boil (Saone-et-Loire), Gallia 52, 2002, 89–120.

Münzer 1897

F. Münzer, Beiträge zur Quellenkritik der Naturgeschichte des Plinius, Berlin 1897.

Naumann – Naumann 1973

R. Naumann – F. Naumann, Der Rundbau in Aezani. Mit dem Preisedikt des Diokletian und das Gebäude mit dem Edikt in Stratonikeia, Tübingen 1973 (Istanbuler Mitteilungen, Beiheft 10).

Nogales et al. 1999

T. Nogales – P. Lapuente – J. L. De la Barera, Marbles and other Stones used in Augusta Emerita, Hispania, in: ASMOSIA IV, Archéomatériaux. Marbres et autres roches. IVème Conférence internationale de l’Association pour l’étude des marbres et autres roches utilisées dans le passé ( Bordeaux-Talence, 9–13 octobre 1995), Bordeaux 1999, 339–345.

Palmentieri 2015

A. Palmentieri, Marmora Romana in Medieval Naples: Architectural Spolia from the Fourth to the Fifteenth Centuries AD, in: J. Hughes – C. Buongiovanni (Hgg.), Remembering Parthenope. The Reception of Classical Naples from Antiquity to the Present, Oxford 2015, 121–151.

Peacock – Williams 1999

D. P. S. Peacock – D. F. Williams, Ornamental Coloured Marble in Roman Britain: an interim report, ASMOSIA IV, Archéomatériaux. Marbres et autres roches. IVème Conférence internationale de l’Association pour l’étude des marbres et autres roches utilisées dans le passé (Bordeaux-Talence, 9–13 octobre 1995), Bordeaux 1999, 353–357.

Pekary 1968

T. Pekary, Untersuchungen zu den Römischen Reichstrassen, Bonn 1968.

Pensabene 2014

P. Pensabene, I marmi nella Roma antica, Rom 2014.

Pensabene – Lazzarini 1998

P. Pensabene – L. Lazzarini, Il problema del bigio antico e del bigio morato: contributo allo studio delle cave di Teos e di Chios, in: P. Pensabene (Hg.), Marmi Antichi. II. Cave e tecnica di lavorazione, provenienze e distribuzione, Rom 1998, 141–173 (Studi Miscellanei 31).

Pococke 1752

R. Pococke, Description of the East I–II, London 1745.

Quandt 1913

W. Quandt, De Baccho ab Alexandri aetate in Asia Minore culto, Halle 1913.

Richardson 1992

L. Richardson, A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Baltimore – London 1992.

Robert 1937

L. Robert, Études anatoliennes. Recherches sur les inscriptions grecques de l’Asie Mineure, Paris 1937 (ND Amsterdam 1970).

Robert 1954

L. Robert, La Carie. Histoire et géographie historique avec le recueil des inscriptions antiques. Tome II. Le Plateau de Tabai et ses environs, Paris 1954.

Robert 1976

L. Robert, Une inscription grecque de Téos en Ionie: L’union de Téos et de Kyrbissos, Journal des savants 1976, 152–235 (= Robert, OMS VII, 297–379).

Ruppiene 2015

V. Ruppiene, Natursteinverkleidungen in den Bauten der Colonia Ulpia Traiana. Gesteinskundliche Analysen, Herkunftsbestimmung und Rekonstruktion, Darmstadt 2015, 146–156.

Russell 2011

B. Russel, Lapis transmarinus: stone-carrying ships and the maritime distribution of stone in the Roman Empire, in: D. Robinson – A. Wilson (Hgg.), Maritime Archaeology and Ancient Trade in the Mediterranean, Oxford 2011, 139–156.

Russell 2013

B. Russell, The Economics of the Roman Stone Trade, Oxford 2013.

Skovmøller 2016

A. Skovmøller, Portraits and Colour-codes in ancient Rome: The Polychromy of white marble Portraits, Diss. Kopenhagen 2016.

Tröster 2005

M. Tröster, Lucullus, His Foreign Amici, and the Shadow of Pompey, in: A. Coskun (Hg.), Roms auswärtige Freunde in der späten Republik und im frühen Prinzipat, Göttingen 2005, 91–111.

Türk et al. 1988

N. Türk – S. Çakıcı – D. M. Uz – S. Akça – K. Geyik, The Geology, Quarrying Technology and Use of Beylerköy Marbles in Western Turkey, in: N. Herz – M. Waelkens (Hgg). Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology and Trade (NATO ASI series. Series E, Applied sciences 153), Dordrecht 1988, 85–89.

Uz 2013

D. M. Uz, Teos’taki Dionysos Tapınağı, Ankara 2013, 37–41.

Uzunoğlu 2015

H. Uzunoğlu, Das Verkehrsnetz von Nord-Ionien (Teos – Lebedos – Klazomenai) anhand alter und neuer Meilensteine, Philia 1, 2015,166–177.

Ward-Perkins 1951

J. P. Ward-Perkins, Tripolitania and the Marble Trade, JRS 41, 1951, 89–104.

Ward-Perkins 1981

J. P. Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture, New Haven 1981.

Weaver 1972

P. R. C. Weaver, Familia Caesaris. A Social Study of the Emperor’s Freedmen and Slaves, Cambridge 1972.

Vanhove 1996

D. Vanhove, Roman Marble Quarries in Southern Euboea and the Associated Road Networks, Leiden 1996.

Viscogliosi 1996

A. Viscogliosi: Il tempio di Apollo in circo e la formazione del linguaggio architettonico augusteo, Rom 1996.

Yavuz – Bruno – Attanasio 2011

A. B. Yavuz – B. Bruno – D. Attanasio, An updated, multi-method database of Ephesos marbles including white, Greco Scritto, and Bigio varieties, Archaeometry 53/2, 2011, 215–240.

Zanker 1990

P. Zanker, Augustus und die Macht der Bilder, München 1990.